Melisa Emine ALTUNDAĞ
There are no simple solutions in energy policy. Which solves all problems, does not lead to contamination and a cheap energy source has also not yet been found. Gas, oil, coal, nuclear energy and all sources such as renewable energy have both strong and weak points. Otheron the other hand, in almost all areas of our energy, economic and social life usedr.2.After the World War II, France and Germany’s iron-steel the transfer of its resources to the management of a supranational authority, and in this way it is necessary iron, which is in a key position in terms of international security and economic growth, and the understanding of preventing a new war in Europe by combining the interests in steel resources he has become a judge. The European Coal and Steel Community (ECSC), with such an understanding, dated 1951 It was established by the Treaty of Paris. Thus, the European economic and political integration has also begun. Seven years after that date, in 1958. European Atomic Energy Community (EAEC) and the European Economic Community (EEC), the Quran Antlagmalar It is signed. Since then, energy policy has been a parallel to economic integration. in form, it has developed gradually. r. As can be seen, energy is the oldest common policy of the EU it is one of the important areas that have influenced the common energy policy for all these years There have been changes: For example, before the first oil crisis in 1973, the EU member states, Like most developed countries, they behave negatively in energy consumption, as well as import they were also extremely dependent. The oil crisis, the need for a strategy to protect the energy supply from external shocks he has shown that he is. since the 1980s, the environment has emerged as another subject of interest. From production to use, it is generally accepted that the current energy system is very harmful to the global environment how to rebuild energy systems without endangering the environment, which has been accepted as the issue of whether it can be directed has become an important issue. At the end of the 1980s, The European Union, this time. In the face of a new trend towards the liberalization of energy markets, He came across. In this context, the existing markets that are fragmented between the countries are Decoupled. It was understood that it should be integrated and the internal energy Sunday became the focus of increasing competition He must have come.
Keywords: Energy, European Economic Community, EU Member States,
The Oil Crisis Entry
The EU energy policy and the realization of the objectives of this policy are the sole responsibility of the EU it does not depend on what they will do. In addition, the EU energy policy, the energy producers in the world, the decisions of those who supply energy to the markets, the behaviors of important energy consumers and it also depends on the developments affecting energy production and consumption in the international arena. EU energy policy is highly sensitive to non-EU factors. This policy is sensitive to external factors it is fragile to the extent that it is. . Security organization for ensuring energy security from the point of view of the EU taking advantage of NATO is a critical option. The presence of NATO, although not applied it is very important in terms of deterrence in ensuring energy security. However, at least NATO long-term cooperation with energy countries and regions, which is as important and priority as the option,, to establish stable political and economic relations and to maintain these relations in line with common interests is to continue. The fact that energy is a basic input of production, and accordingly, an indispensable quality in terms of the importance of energy supply security, current discussions of recent years it has become one of his subjects. Which has an important place in the basis of sustainable development energy; timely, in sufficient quantity, without interruption and at the same time economical it was very important for the countries to be provided reasonably from the point of view. United Nations According to the definition made by the Development Program (UNDP), energy supply security exists in the face of demand, energy is required at any time, in various ways, in sufficient quantity, suitable provided at affordable prices and without unacceptable or irreversible effects on the environment Jul is to beIt is possible to obtain it at the July price (Yergin, 2006, p. 70). UNDP’s In the second definition, which is a narrower definition according to his definition, energy, the security of supply is limited as the provision of sufficient quantity at an affordable price. EU on the other hand, energy security, in addition to the energy that will be needed in the future, also from an economic point of view under acceptable conditions, by developing local resources or strategic reserves, both In addition to providing accessible and stable external resources as a strategic reserve by implementing the July it is definable. EU’s energy supply security for the first time with the oil crises experienced in the 70s it looks like he’s faced his problem. In the following years, the Soviet Union global developments such as the breakup, the Gulf War and the events of September 11, there are not only events that affect the energy security of the Union, but also global events at the same time, it has experienced a level of energy security hazardLater, in February 20022, the following The Russia-Ukraine crisis has led to a more serious discussion of energy supply security at the Union level and it has shown that there is an issue on which a solution needs to be produced, the EU’s energy supply that he may have problems with his safety, officially published for the first time in 2000 It is mentioned in the Green Book. According to this, the EU’s energy demand is mainly oil and natural the fact that it consists of gas; as a result of the fact that this demand cannot be met by domestic production, these two the external dependence that occurs at the source increases the Union’s energy supply security to a dangerous extent. he is carrying. The EU’s energy supply security problem, Central and Eastern Europe experienced in 2004 It has increased even more with the expansion process. In the energy of the new states joining the Union the high number of addictions is the main reason for this increase. Besides that, the North
Decrease in natural gas and oil reserves in the sea and decreases in coal production together, the EU’s import dependence on energy is increasing even more; Energy supply security, the EU at its level, it has shown a geographical change with the 90s.At the beginning of the 90s With the fall of the Soviet Union, previously largely supplied from the Middle East the energy needs that have been Jul-tained are now being supplied from Russia and the Independent States (CIS) countries. has been started. There are two reasons for this change. The first reason is the source of the EU the country wants to diversify and find an alternative to the energy provided from the Middle East, secondly, the geography of Russia and the CIS is safer and more relative to the Middle East. it is stable that is. In recent years, the demand for energy in the world has been increasing day by day. China, Developing countries such as India, along with the economic growth they have achieved, energy and he increases his demands day by day. The EU wants to unite the energy markets, this in this way, it tries to create a safer energy infrastructure. In the producing countries it is developing a number of projects in order to ensure stability, member states and producing countries it also makes various investments to improve its energy infrastructures (2009, p. 34). In the World due to the rising energy demand, the existing energy it imports should go to other regions in order to prevent and find new resources, great importance is attached to relations with producing countries he gives. Annual natural gas for use in any extraordinary situation a part of 20% of their consumption is stored. The International Energy Agency (IEA), there is also an opinion about the storage of oil (2007, p. 127). Also It is being tried to increase the ratio of renewable energy consumption in final energy consumption, this in this way, with the substitution of outsourced energy with renewable energy, energy imports energy security is being tried to be increased by reducing it. Increased demand after COVID-19 due to this, electricity prices have risen along with oil, coal and natural gas, and this rise min 2022, it continued with the effect of geopolitical developments. Europe after April a record has been broken in electricity prices in their countries. four in France in December 2021 with the closure of the nuclear reactor, electricity prices in Germany and France have increased and peaked he has reached the values. During this period, the electricity price in Germany reached 336 euros per MWH, In France, it has been seen that it has reached 540 euros. Russia will be returning to Ukraine on February 24, 2022 the military offensive against the EU, especially by putting pressure on gas and oil prices, it has caused panic about energy supply security and has affected energy markets and commodity prices he made it unstable. With the invasion of Russia, the energy markets will be further affected new increases in energy prices have occurred in line with securing the EU’s energy supply there have also been concerns about his ability to go under.3 Of Russia Within the scope of the emergency plan prepared after the interruption of natural gas supply to Europe It has been decided that all EU Member States should reduce their gas consumption by 15%.result .
The EU, which imports more than half of the energy it consumes, is very concerned about energy supply security. he is in a delicate position .The quantitative height observed in the energy dependence of the EU is a qualitative problem also lies next to it. The EU is the main and most important two, such as oil and natural gas it is highly dependent on Russia and
Norway in terms of energy. The Russia-Ukraine crisis, crises such as some experiences, reducing the dependence on the countries in question as soon as possible it shows that it is necessary. In other words, it is also a moment for the EU to diversify its energy supply countries it has to be realized first and minimize the risk. The EU is at the point of energy reserves it is important to develop good relations with rich countries and to further develop existing relations he sees it as a policy. In this context, it is important such as the Middle East, the Caucasus, the Caspian Sea should increase bilateral relations with the regions hosting reserves; and that it is useful for helping developing countries on the path of economic development we can tell.