Analysıs Of The Effect Of Nıxon Doctrın To The Publıc Dıplomacy

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Richard Nixon’s Presidential Period

    Nixon, who started his presidency in January 1969 ’, explains his doctrine, which is the roadmap of the presidential process at the Guam Conference on July 25, 1969 ’. The Republican President, whose main goal is to build “ peace ”, is from the bilateral model of the international system ( bipolar model ) USA, Soviet Union, Western Europe, It states that it has shifted to the system with 5 great powers, including Japan and China, but argues that only two of them can be fully superpower. He adds that in Asia, despite the hegemony of China and the Soviets, the USA will protect its success and interests. 

    Nixon will begin to pull the force of 25,000 people from the American forces of 540,000 in South Vietnam on June 8, 1969, in thirty days, It reports that by the end of 1969, it will withdraw a US soldier of 100,000 and 100-150 thousand people from Vietnam again in 1970. Withdrawing most US troops from Vietnam would reduce the threat to China. It is seen that the tension with China has softened that the doctrine has been stated that the US soldier will not be sent to regional wars, but that the necessary weapons and money will be provided in case of danger of the allies.

   Believing that oil shipment with its neighbors in the Middle East and the Persian Gulf will be safer with Iran, Nixon and Henry Kissinger help Iran and Israel for arms aid and army modernization. A total of $ 15 billion in sales from the most advanced US weapons are made to Mohammed Reza Shah Pehlevi, the Shah of Iran.  Nixon, He had withdrawn his troops from the region, but believed that the US would provide security in the region without intervention by providing various assistance to Iran and Saudi Arabia under the policy of “ double column ( bipedal policy ) ” to prevent the spread of the Soviets and communism. This policy loses its influence with the annexation of the Soviets to Afghanistan in 1979 ’ and the Iranian Islamic Revolution.

In his re-election proposal in 1972, Nixon won the election with 61% against McGovern, beating Democrats’ presidential candidate South Dakota Senator George McGovern with a result of the widest election differences so far. A few months later, in Washington DC, Washington, in the Watergate hotel, objections were made to the scandal of the Democratic Party members’ rooms being listened to through Republicans listening devices, as Nixon’s name was confused, but the public their trust in the re-elected person has been shaken. Carl Bernstein and Bob Woodword, two reporters of the Washington Post newspaper, did not pursue the incident, revealing the truth, creating the reason for his resignation on August 9, 1974 ’.

PUBLIC DIPLOMACY


The concept of public diplomacy was first brought up as an alternative to propaganda by Edmund Gullion, the head of the Edward Murrow Center and former diplomat, who was affiliated with Tuft University in 1965. According to Gullion ” public diplomacy; is the effect of public behavior on foreign policy formation and execution. Beyond traditional diplomacy, it covers different aspects of international relations (, such as public influence in other countries, flow of information and ideas, interaction of interest groups in countries ). ”
According to Harold Nicolson ‘, which deals with diplomacy in two different ways narrowly and broadly, “ diplomacy in the narrow sense; While negotiating with diplomats, diplomacy in a broad sense; to define political methods and techniques in the foreign policies of states.”
Public Diplomacy; The role of the media in international relations, the self-development of governments based on the public, the private organizations of one country interact with non-governmental organizations of other countries, and the whole international process, It covers its impact on policy development and the direction of foreign relations… ”

   “ It is an advantage of soft power that it takes the conversation around public diplomacy to the national security area and provides a language to advocate consideration of public diplomacy. Noting that if it is disadvantageous according to Nye, one person can offer their wishes, each state wants to achieve a completely perfect strategy at the international meeting (conversion) but this is certainly not an attractive (attractive) but rather a driving negative soft power. Listening is attractive to change in the face of what you encounter. Therefore, the contradictory focus of the state on too much soft power can actually reduce the soft power of the actor. ”

Machiavelli, the way classical power has been ruled for centuries, is safer than being afraid of “, and today’s view differs from the view that it reveals the understanding of ”. This discourse is now that it is much more accurate to interpret “ as both fear and be loved ”.

     Inadequate form of classical diplomacy is a door to the birth of public diplomacy, that is, the substitution of traditional diplomacy. With another change, classical diplomacy is carried out with public diplomacy and it also assumes its complementarity. Public diplomacy, in particular, can be active in the civil field with different means than traditional diplomacy, that is, public actors other than the diplomats appointed by the states. Therefore, it is also called as public diplomacy, civil diplomacy and diplomacy without a tie. 

      Three features that public diplomacy should have to be strong:

1)Inclusion: Public diplomacy a certain group ( for example; elites should include the whole society, not ).

2)Sincerity and Integrity: As it is important in inter-individual communication, it is considered important in interstate relations without leveling.

3) Respecting the National Identity and Values of the Countries: It should be noted that the societies were built with their national identities. It is essential that states introduce themselves without humiliating the national identity of states.

CONCLUSION

After Henry Kissinger’s secret visit to China in 1971’, the American table tennis (ping pong) team, which existed for the world championship in Japan, is invited to China on April 6, 1971. Thus, Nixon’s willingness to negotiate with China, both as vice president and presidency. The American table tennis team was accepted by the Chinese Prime Minister on April 14, 1971 ’. Seven Western journalists, mostly Americans, are also issued an entry visa, and the same day, US President Nixon lifted the commercial embargo he had been implementing against China for twenty years. It informs Chinese citizens who want to come to America that they will be given a visa. With this visit of the American ping-pong team, the first talks between China and the USA begin through “pin pon diplomacy”. Later, US President Nixon became the first US president to visit the People’s Republic of China, a communist state in February 1972 ’.

It is also possible to say that one reason Nixon visited China was to establish triangular diplomacy and to surround NATO in the west and China and Russia from the east. Since the beginning of the cold war, the communist Soviet Union’s effort to spread its ideology and influence other state regimes has been a major threat to the capitalist US. At the same time, rival states’ acquisition of nuclear weapons, satellite to the moon, and efforts to send people escalate the relations of the oppressed opponent. Although 1953 Stalin’s death seemed soft, he was not very long-running. Both the Cuban Crisis and the Vietnam War have strained relations. Although Nixon wanted to negotiate with the Soviet Union, he used “ triangle diplomacy ” to prevent possible communist spread and aggressive attitude.

The Nixon government attracts its troops from the Middle East using low policy, but aims to prevent Soviet spread by implementing “ bipedal policy ( double column or double pole ) ” in Iran and Saudi Arabia. Although it is aimed to achieve a peace environment by softening Arab-Israeli relations in the Middle East by leading “Camp David Talks ” through the shuttle diplomacy of Henry Kissinger after the Arab-Israel War of 1973, an effective result cannot be achieved. These negotiations in the Middle East continue until the Soviet invasion of Afghanistan in 1979 ’ and the Islamic Revolution of Iran that same year. It was not possible to achieve these desired goals.
Between the US-Soviet Union-England; By making the Treaty ’ “ Seabed (Seabed) ”, it is forbidden to build, store, try and launch nuclear weapons, mass destruction weapons at the bottom of the sea. April 10, 1972 ’ signs a treaty stating the destruction of weapons within 9 months, which are prohibited from the production, development and storage of biological and toxic weapons. Thus, Nixon tries to prevent nuclear weapons use and production in the event of climbing or possible war.

Between the US-Soviet Union; November 17, 1969 SALT(Strategic Arms Limitation Talk ) Starting negotiations in Helsinki, After seven-stage and 2.5-year talks, nuclear weapons are limited by signing between “ SALT1 Treaty ” Nixon-Breznev ( communist party general secretary ) in Moscow on May 26, 1972. Thus, he was the first US president to visit the Soviet Union during the cold war. The Treaties “SALT2”, which began in 1972, which are the continuation of the SALT1 Treaty, begin, but negotiations end with the 1979 Soviets’ invasion of Afghanistan and the Iranian Revolution without concluding.

By making the ’ Threshold “Treaty , it prohibits the attempt of nuclear weapons stronger than 150 kilotans underground.

    As can be seen, Nixon has sought to use public diplomacy by taking a “peaceful ” attitude in US foreign policy. Finishing the Vietnam War, a long-running war, his oppressed rivals visited the Soviet Union and China, and made various treaties, striving for his soldiers to return to their country, There may be indications that he is trying to bring diplomacy to the fore instead of the war from hard diplomacy tools. It is of course the power to say that Nixon demonstrated the same success in domestic politics.  As mentioned in the relevant sections, for example, the increase in inflation by decreasing the purchasing power within the country. He also resigned from his post on August 9, 1974 ’ on the reactions that came after the Watergate Scandal and the second term, leaving his position at Gerald Ford. For the first time in US history, he left his seat as the president of the USA, whose name was involved in such a scandal and for the first time resigned.

Reference:

Colonel Darrel L. Gaoler,THE NIXON DOCTRINE–IS THERE A ROLE FOR ThE US ARMlY? , US  Pennsylvania 5 June 1973 pdf.1-7.(e.t.13.11.23)

Tayyar Arı, IRAK, İRAN ve ABD Önleyici Savaş, Petrol ve Hegemonya,1.Baskı, İstanbul: Alfa Yayınları,0cak 2004,s.235.

Richard J. Samuels, Nixon Doctrine United States history, Britannica,

 https://www.britannica.com/event/Nixon-Doctrine (e.t.13.11.23)

MAMMADOV Hafız, ”ABD’nin Suudi Arabistan-İran İşbirliğine Dayalı Körfez’de Güvenlik Politikası: Çifte Sütun Politikası” Türkiye Ortadoğu Çalışmaları Dergisi, Cilt:4, Sayı:2, 01.11.17, s.171. (e.t.13.11.23)

Watergate Scandal, Nixon Library, https://www.nixonlibrary.gov/index.php/president-nixon  (e.t.13.11.23)

Watergate sitesinde, Demokrat Parti’ye bağlı Demokratik Ulusal Komitesi’nin (DNC) ofislerine gerçekleştiği belirtilmektedir. Ayrıntılı bilgi için bknz: “Trump-Rusya ilişkisi İkinci Watergate Skandalı’na yol açar mı?” , BBC, 6 Mart 2017, https://www.bbc.com/turkce/haberler-dunya-39173820 (e.t.13.11.23) 

 “Amerika’nın İki Büyük Skandalı: Watergate Ve Irangate” , Remzi Çetin, 1.dakika 50.saniye-5.dakika 53.saniye, https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=qt4yHpl-xpg&t=245s (e.t.13.11.23) , Nixon Library, loc.cit.

Mehmet Salih Gün, Kamu Diplomasisi, Ankara: TBMM Araştırma Merkezi, Mart 2020, s.1. ‘ aktaran Barış Özdal, R. Kutay Karaca Diplomasi Tarihi 1, 1.Baskı, Bursa: Dora Yayınları,2018, s.61.

Aslı Yağmurlu, Halkla İlişkiler Yöntemi Olarak Kamu Diplomasisi, Kamu Diplomasisi Enstitüsü, pdf. s.4.(e.t.13.11.23)

Harold Nicolson, Diplomasi, (çev: Mete Engin), İstanbul: Altın Kitaplar, 1970 ‘aktaran Özgün Erler, Faruk Sönmezoğlu, “Dış Politika Analizinde Temel Öğeler”, Özgün Erler, Faruk Sönmezoğlu, Dış Politika Karşılaştırmalı Bakış, İstanbul: Der Yayınları, Kasım 2014, s.29.

Hans N. TUCH, Communicating With the World: U.S. Public Diplomacy Overseas, New York, St.Martin’s Press, 1990, s. 8 ‘den aktaran , “Kamu Diplomasisi Nedir?” , Kamu Diplomasisi Enstitüsü, https://www.kamudiplomasisi.org/component/content/article/39/59-kamu- (e.t.06.03.21)

 

Ayrıntılı bilgi için bknz: Nicholas J. Cull, Public Diplomacy: Lessons from the Past, Los Angeles: FIGUEROA PRESS, 2009, pdf, s.15. (13.11.23)

Armitage ve Nye, 2008,’den aktaran, Küreselleşen Dünyada Diplomasi: Kamu Diplomasisi, Kamu Diplomasisi Enstitüsü , https://www.kamudiplomasisi.org/makaleler/makaleler/124-kuereselleen-duenyada-diplomasi-kamu-diplomasisi-  ( e.t. 13.11.23)

 

Muharrem Ekşi, Kamu Diplomasisi, Ankara Kriz Ve Siyaset Araştırma Merkezi(ANKASAM), https://www.ankasam.org/kamu-diplomasisi/ (E.T.13.11.23).


Yazar: Vildan Kabasakal

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